福建师范大学2022年2月课程考试《高级英语阅读(一)》作业考核试题

作者:奥鹏周老师 分类: 福建师范大学 发布时间: 2022-01-22 21:15
《高级英语阅览(一)》期末考试A卷


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一、客观题(每题3分)
I判别对错题(答案必须写在答题纸上, 对的写“T”,错的写“F”
Read Lesson 6Text B “Unwilling to School” Judge whether the following statements are true or false.
:(阅览教材第6课 课文B, 判别对错)

Unwillingly to School
By Katrin Fitz Herbert
Every child with a poor school attendance record is a child in danger. At best, he is in danger of not fulfilling his educational potential; at worst, he is in danger of cruelty or neglect.
Enforced school absence in childhood is sometimes used by adults to justify their own career failure. It is difficult for a child to play truant regularly if his parents are keen for him to attend school. Much truancy is openly condoned; as for the rest, not knowing that your children play truant is equivalent to not ensuring that they are at school. It shows lack of interest in their whereabouts, apathy about their education, or inability to control them — i.e., ineffective parents...
The characteristics which lead families to reject regular schooling are likely to have other detrimental effects on the children besides educational failure. For what could make parents decide that the most widely agreed route to secure employment, social acceptance and personal satisfaction is not for them? The first reason is a general difficulty in dealing with family responsibilities, particularly in the stressful environment of modern cities. Getting the child to school on time is too much to cope with (alarm clock, breakfast, clothes, shoes, gym clothes, lunch money). Secondly, the child\'s company may comfort a depressed, isolated mother.
The school\'s insistence on uniforms or other obligations and, possibly, its undisguised disapproval of an "inadequate" family, may be the last straw. Children who grow up in such families are likely to be deprived in many ways besides education.
In these families, education is written off as a waste of time. For a child growing up, this is possibly more serious than the loss of education. Habitual non-attendance can accustom children very early in their lives to rejecting the values and legal requirements of society. It is a training in deviance and anti-social behaviour which can lay the foundation for a generally deviant career. The common progression from truancy or parentally-condoned absence to juvenile crime has been reliably established.
In greatest danger of all is the child who successfully plays truant for long periods without his parents\' knowledge. His personal isolation and alienation, not just from conventional behaviour but from his own family, puts him in danger of delinquency, drugs or mental illness in later life. Truancy has been called the "kindergarten of crime", and bad school attendance spells failure and possible unemployment in later life.
It was soon realized that non-attendance was too complex and serious a problem to be dealt with by education departments alone. Much responsibility for school attendance was, therefore, transferred to social workers. This move has, on its own, however, possibly created as many problems as it has solved. This is because the seriousness with which they regard non-attendance is an issue on which social workers and workers in education differ. Social workers tend to regard it as merely one symptom of social failure which, particularly if homelessness, physical neglect, marital problems and illness are present, does not justify more attention than the rest.
Workers in education consider the other problems as all the more reason why the children concerned should have the advantage of regular schooling. The longer they stay truant, the greater are their chances of getting into further trouble. One chief education welfare officer told me: "The best form of social service you can do for deprived children is to see that they receive education in the normal school setting."
I was given access to a few cases of nine-year-old children selected by their head teacher for causing concern due to problems arising outside school. I read their files and talked to the workers involved about how each, from his professional point of view, saw the chain of events since the initial referral. In cases concerned with school absence, this method produced a commentary of the slow progression towards stalemate which can occur when two departments with different priorities are jointly responsible for solving the same problem. For how can a decisive plan for action ever be formed if it depends on the cooperation of two people who basically disagree?
Non-attendance can so injure a child\'s life chances that it deserves to be tackled by a more single-minded attack than this. A concerted policy should focus on the following areas: first, the school\'s own capacity for holding the interest of pupils; second, its efficiency in registering unexplained absences; third, school-oriented social work; fourth, boarding schools; and fifth, public attitude.
The general climate of a school is obviously a powerful factor in a child\'s decision to play truant, so creating an acceptable school atmosphere is one of the most challenging assignments teachers face. It must, however, be distinguished from the separate task of setting up efficient machinery for following up suspected truants. This consists of treating any unexplained absence—even lateness, which is often an indication of absence to come as serious. If the school immediately queries the first and subsequent unexplained absence, it will be much more difficult for the child to become a habitual absentee.
The school\'s success in keeping non-attendance to a minimum also depends on the effectiveness of its education welfare officer, the official link between school and home. Ideally, when alerted about a suspected absence, he makes an immediate home visit to see what has gone wrong. In the first instance he may simply go to "collect excuses", gradually forming his own idea of the real reason for the child\'s absence the child is bullied at school, the mother is unhappy when the child is at school, the family does not get up in time, the parents don\'t know about the truancy, the child has not got a uniform, and so on. Though the officer will do what he can to alleviate any problem he stumbles on, his main interest is to get the child back to school.
Another ingredient of a general attack on chronic non-attendance should be boarding education. Every Education Welfare Officer has his core of cases of children whose parents do not believe in education; who have such psychological problems of their own that they need their children for company or who are so anti-authority that they will not hand their children over to any representatives of the "establishment" they detest. These are the parents with whom the officer, and the school or social workers get nowhere and whose children get no education to speak of, if left in their home environment.
Teachers, education welfare officers and social workers are sometimes excessively reluctant to consider boarding school. They regard it as a punitive action with a certain finality for the child. Many referrals are, therefore, made too late to be really useful. Sending a child to a boarding school should be to improve a situation which is not going well. However, everybody is so wary of it, that we tend to use it when it is really too late; when parents are ready to be relieved of a child who is a problem—thus giving the child good reason to feel rejected. When the child is still wanted, and sent to boarding school against his parents\' will, then it can really solve the problem by answering the child\'s educational needs, without destroying family bonds.
Finally, the public apathy towards truancy is a positive incentive to children who have difficulties at school. The man in the street, even when knocked sideways by a diminutive footballer during school hours, merely curses and walks on. Would absence rates be any different if the public occasionally "had a go" at obvious non-attenders and encouraged them to give their teachers another chance to make school worthwhile for them?

1.Every child with poor school attendance record is unable to fulfill his educational potential and is going to suffer cruelty or neglect.
2. Many parents do not know that their children play truant regularly, which shows their lack of interest in their children’s education or inability to control them.
3. Parent’s difficulty in dealing with family responsibility is not a reason which leads families to reject regular schooling.
4. Habitual non-attendance can cause children reject the values and legal requirements of society very early in their lives.
5. Truancy or parentally-condoned absence may or may notlead to juvenile crime.
6. Mental illness in later life is another bad effect of truancy.
7. Non-attendance is such a complex and serious problem that it can’tbe dealt with by education department alone.
8. According to this passage, the social workers and educational department didn’t cooperate very well because they disagree basically.
9.According to the writer ,registering unexplained absence is not very effectiveto resolve regular non-attendance.
10. Unlike the parents, the teachers , social workers and education welfare officers are unwilling to send truants to boarding school in the early stage.


 IIDirections: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and write the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.  
Passage 1
Space is a dangerous place, not only because of meteors but also because of rays from the sun and other stars.The atmosphere again acts as our protective blanket on earth.Light get through, and this is essential for plants to make the food which we eat.Heat, too, makes our environment endurable.Various kinds of rays come through the air from outer space, but enormous quantities of radiation from the sun are screened off.As soon as men leave the atmosphere they are exposed to this radiation but their spacesuits or the walls of their spacecraft, if they are inside, do prevent a lot of radiation damage.
Radiation is the greatest known danger to explorers in space.The unit of radiation is called “rem”.Scientists have reason to think that a man can put up with far more radiation than 0.1 rem without being damaged; the figure of 60 rems has been agreed on.The trouble is that it is extremely difficult to be sure about radiation damage—a person may feel perfectly well, but the cells of his or her sex organs may be damaged, and this will not be discovered until the birth of deformed children or even grandchildren.Missions of the Apollo flights have had to cross belts of high radiation and, during the outward and return journeys, the Apollo crew accumulated a large amounts of rems.So far, no dangerous amount of radiation have been reported, but the Apollo missions have been quite short.We simply do not know yet how men are going to get on when they spend weeks and months outside the protection of the atmosphere, working in a space laboratory.Drugs might help to decrease the damage done by radiation, but no really effective ones have been found so far.
11According to the first paragraph, the atmosphere is essential to man in that _____.
a. it protects him against the harmful rays from space
b. it provides sufficient light for plant growth
c. it supplies the heat necessary for human survival
d. it screens off the falling meteors
12 We know from the passage that _____.
a. exposure to even tiny amounts of radiation is fatal
b. the effect of exposure to radiation is slow in coming
c. radiation is avoidable in space exploration
d. astronauts in spacesuits needn’t worry about radiation damage
13 The harm radiation has done to the Apollo crew member ______.
a. is insignificant b. seems overestimated
c. is enormous d. remains unknown
14 It can be inferred from the passage that ______.
a. the Apollo mission was very successful
b. protection from space radiation is no easy job
c. astronauts will have deformed children or grandchildren
d. radiation is not a threat to well-protected space explorers
15 The best title for this passage would be ______.
a. The Atmosphere and Our Environment
b. Research on Radiation
c. Effects of Space Radiation
d. Importance of Protection Against Radiation

Passage 2
Taste is such a subjective matter that we don’t usually conduct preference tests for food.The most you can say about anyone’s preference, is that it’s one person’s opinion.But because the two big cola companies Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola are marketed so aggressively, we’ve wondered how big a role taste preference actually plays in brand loyalty.We set up a taste test that challenged people who identified themselves as either Coca-Cola or Pepsi fans: Find your brand in a blind tasting.
We invited staff volunteers who had a strong liking for either Coca-Cola classic or Pepsi, Diet Coke, or Diet Pepsi.These were people who thought they’d have no trouble telling their brand from the other brand.
We eventually located 19 regular cola drinkers and 27 diet Cola drinkers.Then we fed them four unidentified samples of cola one at a time, regular colas for the one group, diet versions for the other.We asked them to tell us whether each sample was Coke or Pepsi; then we analyzed the records statistically to compare the participants’ choices with what mere guess-work could have accomplished.
Getting all four samples right was a tough test, but not too tough, we thought, for people who believed they could recognize their brand.In the end, only 7 out of 19 regular cola drinkers correctly identified their brand of choice in all four trials.The diet-cola drinkers did a little worse-only 7 of 27 identified all four samples correctly.
While both groups did better than chance would predict, nearly half the participants in each group made the wrong choice two or more times.Two people got all four samples wrong.Overall, half the participants did about as well on the last round of tasting as on the first, so fatigue, or taste burnout, was not a factor.Our preference test results suggest that only a few Pepsi participants and Coke fans may really be able to tell their favorite brand by taste and price.
16 According to the passage the preference test was conducted in order to ______.
a. find out the role taste preference plays in a person’s drinking
b. reveal which cola is more to the liking of the drinkers
c. show that a person’s opinion about taste is mere guess-work
d. compare the ability of the participants in choosing their drinks
17 The statistics recorded in the preference tests show _____.
a. Coca-Cola and Pepsi are people’s two most favorite drinks
b. there is not much difference in taste between Coca-Cola and Pepsi
c. few people had trouble telling Coca-Cola from Pepsi
d. people’s tastes differ from one another
18 It is implied in the first paragraph that _______.
a. the purpose of taste tests is to promote the sale of colas
b. the improvement of quality is the chief concern of the two cola companies
c. the competition between the two colas is very strong.
d. Blind tasting is necessary for identifying fans
19 The word “burnout” (in the second sentence from the end, Para. 5) here refers to the state of ______.
a. being seriously burnt in the skin
b. being unable to burn for lack of fuel
c. being badly damaged by fire
d. being unable to function because of excessive use
20 The author’s purpose in writing this passage is to ______.
a. show that taste preference is highly subjective
b. argue that taste testing is an important marketing strategy
c. emphasize that taste and price are closely related to each other
d. recommend that blind tasting be introduced in the quality control of colas

二 翻译题请将下列语句翻译为汉语(共40分 ,每题 20分)
III Translate the following two paragraphs into Chinese.
1
Instead of having to establish rules and limits, an arduous and often frustrating job, instead of having to work at socializing children in order to make them more agreeable to live with, parents could solve all these problems by resorting to the television set.
2
:We cannot eliminate the risks except by not doing those things but by doing so we just substitute a whole new set of risks; instead of risking buying a house with dry rot, we risk having a bad landlord.



答檀卷
I判别对错:
1-5:_____ ____ ____ _____ ______ ______
6-10:______ ______ ____ _______ ______
II 挑选题:
11-15:_____ ____ ____ _____ ______ ______
16-20:______ ______ ____ _______ ______


III Translation
1.




2.

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